Constitution of the Confederate States of America
Ten thousand copies ordered by the Georgia State Convention
We, the people of the Confederate States, each State
acting in its sovereign and independent character, in order
to form a permanent federal government, establish justice,
insure domestic tranquility and secure the blessings of lib-
erty to ourselves and our posterity–invoking the favor and
guidance of Almighty God–do ordain and establish this
Constitution for the Confederate States of America.
From Article I Section 3
Representatives and Direct Taxes shall be apportioned
among the several States which may be included within this
Confederacy, according to their respective numbers, which
shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free
persons, including those bound to service for a term of years,
and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all slaves…
The number of
Representatives shall not exceed one for every fifty thousand,
but each State shall have at least one Representative; and
until such enumeration shall be made, the State of South
Carolina shall be entitled to choose six; the State of Geor-
gia ten; the State of Alabama nine; the State of Florida
two; the State of Mississippi seven; the State of Louisiana
six; and the State of Texas six.
From Article 1 Section 9
1. The importation of negroes of the African race, from
any foreign country, other that the slaveholding States or
Territories of the United States of America, is hereby for-
bidden; and Congress is required to pass such laws as shall
effectually prevent the same.
2. Congress shall also have power to prohibit the intro-
duction of slaves from any State not a member of, or Terri-
tory not belonging to this Confederacy.
11. No title of nobility shall be granted by the Confed-
erate States; and no person holding any office of profit or
trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress,
accept of any present, emolument, office or title of any
kind whatever from any king,prince or foreign State.
12. Congress shall make no law respecting an establish-
ment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof,
or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the
right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the
government for a redress of grievances.
13. A well regulated militia being necessary to the
security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and
bear arms shall not be infringed.
a. The executive power shall be vested in a President of
the Confederate States of America. He and the Vice-Presi-
dent shall hold their offices for the term of six years: but
the President shall not be re-eligible.
1. Treason against the Confederate States shall consist
only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their
enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be
convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two wit-
nesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open
3. No slave or other person held to service or labor in any
State or Territory of the Confederate States, under the laws
thereof, escaping or lawfully carried into another, shall, in
consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged
from such service or labor; but shall be delivered up on
claim of the party to whom such slave belongs, or to whom
such service or labor may be due.
Section 4. The Confederate States shall guaranty to every State
that now is or hereafter may become a member of this Con-
federacy, a republican form of government, and shall pro-
tect each of them against invasion; and on application of
the Legislature (or of the Executive when the legislature is
not in session) against domestic violence.
Extract From the Journal of the Congress
Congress, March 11, 1861
On the question of the adoption of the Constitution of
the Confederate States of America, the vote was taken by
yeas and nays; and the Constitution was unanimously
adopted, as follows:
Those who voted in the affirmative being Messrs. Walk-
er, Smith, Curry, Hale, McRae, Shorter and Fearn, of
Alabama, (Messrs. Childton and Lewis being absent;) Messrs.
Morton, Anderson and Owens, of Florida; Messrs. Toombs,
Howell Cobb, Bartow, Nisbet, Hill, Wright, Thomas R.
R. Cobb and Stephens, of Georgia, (Messrs. Crawford and
Kenan being absent;) Mesrs. Perkins, de Clouet, Conrad,
Kenner, Sparrow and Marshall, of Louisiana; Messrs.
Harris, Brooke, Wilson, Clayton, Barry and Harrison, of
Mississippi (Mr. Campbell being absent); Messrs. Rhett,
Barnwell, Keitt, Chesnut, Memminger, Mills, Withers and
Boyce, of South Carolina; Messrs. Reagan, Hemphill,
Waul, Gregg, Oldham and Ochiltree, of Texas (Mr. Wig-
fall being absent.)
A1861 .C446 C6